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After the Night of Terror, public pressure mounted in favor of women suffrage, and in early 1918, the D.C. Court of Appeals ruled that the women’s arrests, convictions, and treatment were illegal. Under Carrie Chapman Catt’s leadership, NAWSA continued traditional lobbying efforts and demonstrated women’s value to the WWI war effort.

They asserted that, having proved themselves loyal citizens, they deserved the right to vote. President Wilson finally called on Congress to pass a federal suffrage amendment.

In June 1919, Congress passed the 19th Amendment. Women of the suffrage movement worked tirelessly over the next year to win ratification of the necessary 36 of 48 states. Michigan, Wisconsin, and Illinois ratified first on June 10, 1920. On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the 36th state, securing women’s right to vote.


Native American women’s right to vote was not secured until the U.S. granted full citizenship and voting rights to Native Americans in 1957.

African American women’s voting rights were not secured until the Voting Rights Act in 1965.

And still, barriers to the ballot remain.